Our teeth becomes stained over time due to various food and also bacterial action. Other than stains, calculus develops due to food debris in the mouth and the build-up of calculus can cause gum swelling and infection.
Scaling is done to remove calculus while polishing is to clean stains on tooth.
This procedure helps keep the gum-tooth interface clean and healthy thus reducing the possibility of gum disease, swelling and bleeding.
This is a procedure to seal off minor grooves and fissures on teeth.
These grooves and fissures are potential food traps that causes tooth decay. Sealing them makes the tooth surface smoother and reduces tendency for food to be trapped within the crevasses.
Fissure sealant is very popular especially for children as it helps them maintain a considerably healthier oral hygiene and also prevents premature decay.
This is to apply fluoride on the tooth surface topically to enhance it's resistance to bacterial acids and other tooth decay forming fluids.
Most toothpaste has added fluoride and drinking water in many countries also has added fluoride for teeth protection. As such this is a procedure that may be considered in cases of severely weak tooth surface.